Backward Design Step 7: Integrate Course Elements

Getting started with hybrid instruction

This document is part of a larger collection of documents on hybrid instruction from the Center of Teaching, Learning and Mentoring's Instructional Resources KnowledgeBase. See more hybrid instruction documents.

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Integrate the elements and modality of course into a clear flow.


To ensure that activities flow, we use Fink’s Castle Top model. This model calls for instructors to design learning activities and use the Castle Top framework to ensure the activities flow and support the desired learning objectives (Fink 146). Fink identifies the following sequence of activities.

Castle-Top Model

  • Pre-Class Activities — Present new information and facilitate the building of knowledge. Prepare students for later activities that encourage deeper learning. Often, pre‑class activities include some reflection students do that is tied to in‑class activities.
  • In-Class Activities — Build on foundational knowledge developed in pre‑class activities. May address misunderstandings, questions, or reflections that took place before class.
  • Post-Class Activities — Facilitate reflection, application, evaluation, and/or synthesis of learning that has already taken place.

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Keywords:activities, flow, modality, backward design   Doc ID:103375
Owner:Timmo D.Group:Center for Teaching, Learning & Mentoring
Created:2020-06-25 13:23 CDTUpdated:2022-10-28 10:15 CDT
Sites:Center for Teaching, Learning & Mentoring
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