This document is part of a larger collection of documents on online instruction from the Center for Teaching, Learning and Mentoring's Instructional Resources KnowledgeBase. See more online instruction documents from that collection.
Supporting students in online courses
Instructors set out to support their students to the best of their ability throughout the duration of a course. For online instructors, this need to support eLearners is even greater, as the online environment significantly affects the learner experience, especially in terms of interactions between instructors and students. Furthermore, each student’s individual learning background, skills, and motivations can either minimize or increase the impact of the online environment on their learning experience. Online instructors who recognize which student skills and motivations can help with the learning process will be better equipped to support their eLearners.
The impact the online environment can have on eLearners is due to two main factors: the requirement of technology and the physical separation of instructor and students. The first factor means that students must be proficient with technology in order to access course materials and communicate with others. The second factor—the physical separation—means that students have increased autonomy over their learning process, and, with that, increased responsibility and need for self-discipline. They might also have increased anxiety regarding the learning process. All of these elements require heightened attention to support online learners.
Instructors face both challenges and opportunities when it comes to supporting eLearners. Although they must take into account the same technological and physical factors of the online environment that impact the learning experience for students, instructors have the opportunity to counteract those challenges for students through a variety of support structures and strategies:
In an online course, learner supports have three main goals:
Here are a few specific examples of support for learners:
A well-designed student orientation can help fulfill the first aim of support for learners by including one or more of the following:
The welcome letter provides a brief introduction to the course, covering important navigation instructions, necessary prerequisite knowledge, and pertinent information regarding the online environment, among other things. It introduces the instructor(s) to the students and is usually sent out via email. A welcome letter typically includes these items:
Course content and materials are only effective if students can follow along. Thoughtfully organizing your course in an intuitive and navigable way helps to minimize the mental energy students expend finding what they need to be successful, thereby allowing students to focus on the learning activities themselves. Therefore, it is important to organize the course, Canvas site, and other online components so they are easy to navigate.
A course map and rhythm documents are useful planning tools, even if they will not necessarily appear in the course. Within Canvas, Modules can group a given topic’s materials, activities, and assessments. A clearly defined schedule can show when and how quickly they should proceed through each module. Read about how to organization a course and develop a course rhythm to help students focus on learning.
There are seven research-based principles as to how students learn that should inform the support of eLearners. These principles were originally developed by researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in 2010.
The following table provides instructional strategies for each principle.
|Principle||Examples of Instructional Strategies|
|Principle 1: Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning.||Collect data about students and use it to design instruction; for example, have students assess their own prior knowledge through a survey, quiz, or poll.|
|Principle 2: How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.||
|Principle 3: Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.||
|Principle 4: To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.||
|Principle 5: Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning.||
|Principle 6: Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.||
|Principle 7: To become self-directed learners, students must assess, evaluate, plan, monitor, and adjust as needed.||
Reference: Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., Lovett, M. C., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching.