Backward Design Step 7: Integrate Course Elements

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Integrate the elements and modality of course into a clear flow.

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To ensure that activities flow, we use Fink’s Castle Top model. This model calls for instructors to design learning activities and use the Castle Top framework to ensure the activities flow and support the desired learning objectives (Fink 146). Fink identifies the following sequence of activities.

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  • Pre-Class Activities — Present new information and facilitate building of knowledge. Prepare students for later activities that encourage deeper learning. Often, pre‑class activities include some reflection students do that is tied to in‑class activities.
  • In-Class Activities — Build on foundational knowledge developed in pre‑class activities. May address misunderstandings, questions, or reflections that took place before class.
  • Post-Class Activities — Facilitate reflection, application, evaluation, and/or synthesis of learning that has already taken place.

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